In recent years, the U.S. has seen a major increase in federal regulations, with the imposition of 229 major regulations since 2009 at a cost of $108 billion annually.


major regulations since 2009


billion dollars annually

The U.S. energy sector faces an increasing amount of uncertainty from these intrusive and disruptive federal regulatory initiatives, which threaten to destabilize the electricity market, impose a heavy burden on ratepayers and negatively affect the economy. These regulations are being proposed despite the fact that energy-related CO2 emissions for the first six months of 2016 were at their lowest since 1991.


FIPs under Obama Administration


FIPs under prior three Presidents

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) accounted for nine of the 43 new major rules in 2015, increasing annual regulatory costs by $11.1 billion. The EPA has also dramatically increased the number of Federal Implementation Plans (FIP) it has issued to states since the Obama Administration took office. Over the three prior Presidents, there were a total of five FIPs issued. Under the Obama administration, 57 FIPs were issued.

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Jan. 1990 - Jun. 2016)

  • Natural Gas, Coal, and Petroleum

12-month moving total, billion metric tons